Anti-Pollution Matrix EN – Methods – Method list – In vivo Cigarette Smoke Model

Anti-Pollution Matrix

In vivo Cigarette Smoke Model

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> In vivo Cigarette Smoke Model


Cigarette smoke is used as a human skin model that simulates the effects of air pollution derived from burning of organic substances.

A defined dose of fresh cigarette smoke produced by burning cigarettes is applied with smoke chambers, fixed to the skin of the forearm or back. After standardized smoke application to the skin areas, the test fields are "swabbed" with a buffer solution. By use of HPLC-MS or GC-MS, the resulting oxidized marker lipids are quantified.

In order to obtain reproducible results and a good differentiation of active products, about 12 to 24 test subjects are necessary. The results are standardized to a test field without smoke application (0% oxidized lipids) and an untreated test area after smoke application (100% oxidized lipids).


Detection of
  • Malondialdehyde (MDA), squalenmonohydroperoxide (SQOOH) as markers of lipidperoxidation


Suitable for
  • Film-forming externally applied products that protect physically from cigarette smoke.
  • Leave-on products with antioxidants as the active principle that scavenges free radicals before lipid peroxidation occurs in the upper layers of the skin.

Several (typically 3) active products may be comparatively tested in the same study.

  • Bielfeldt, S., Jung, K., Laing, S., Moga, A., & Wilhelm, K. P. Anti‐pollution effects of two antioxidants and a chelator—Ex vivo electron spin resonance and in vivo cigarette smoke model assessments in human skin. Skin Research and Technology (2021)
  • S. Bielfeldt, A. Böhling, S. Laing, G. Springmann, K.-P. Wilhelm Pollution Protection and the Skin -Testing Strategies. H&PC Today - Household and Personal Care Today; 11(5); 18-21 (2016)
  • S. Bielfeldt, A. Böhling, S. Laing, C. Hoppe, K.-P. Wilhelm. Environmental Skin Protection Strategies – a New Clinical Testing Method Employing a Cigarette Smoke Pollutant Model; Sofw-journal 142; 2-6 (2016)