Loss of collagen
Anti-Pollution Matrix > Damage > Clinical > Loss of collagen
Together with elastin, collagen is one of the most important structural proteins in the human body. It is an important component of skin, bones, tendons, cartilage, blood vessels and teeth. With regard to the skin, collagen fibers mainly pass through the dermis and the basement membrane, where it is responsible for its elasticity.
Collagen is localized in the extracellular matrix and is found mainly in connective and supporting tissues. The synthesis is ascorbic acid-dependent. Vitamin C deficiency results in reduced/ defective collagen formation.
The main types of collagen in the skin include types I, III and IV, which are responsible for its elasticity and strength .
It has been shown several times that air pollution leads to the degradation of collagen in the skin .
Effects on the skin
Collagen degradation contributes to the loss of tissue tension and results in weaker connective tissue, promoting wrinkles (skin aging) .
Decreased levels of collagen types IV and VII (Col-7) may also contribute to wrinkling by weakening the bond between the dermis and epidermis .
Increased exposure to, among other things, air pollution (fine dust particles) and sun exposure should be avoided, as these have a negative effect on the skin, can induce free radicals, which promotes the formation of wrinkles.
Wrinkle formation on the face or other parts of the body can be alleviated by the use of special cream formulations (sunscreens and film formers).
In general, the use of antioxidants is helpful to neutralize free radicals. Vitamin C or other cosmetic active ingredients, for example, support the body in the formation of new collagen or prevent its degradation [4, 5].
Impact detection methods
Wrinkle parameters can be characterized and quantified using skin profilometry.
Multiphoton tomography is an optical non-invasive method to determine the ratio of collagen I to elastin (skin aging) in the skin.
The collagen content of the dermis can be estimated using RAMAN spectroscopy .
The structure of the collagen network of the dermis can be assessed by confocal reflectance microscopy .
Histologically, collagens can be detected using specific antibodies.
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 G. Valacchi, C. Sticozzi, A. Pecorelli, F. Cervellati, C. Cervellati, E. Maioli. Cutaneous responses to environmental stressors. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. ISSN 0077-8923. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06724.x
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 J.L. Contet-Audonneau, C. Jeanmarie, G. Pauly, A histological study of human wrinkle structures: comparison between sun-exposed areas of the face, with or without wrinkles, and sun-protected areas, Brit J Dermatol, 140 (1999) 1038-1047, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2133.1999.02901.x
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 Kourbaj, G., Bielfeldt, S., Seise, M., & Wilhelm, K. P. (2021). Measurement of dermal water content by confocal RAMAN spectroscopy to investigate intrinsic aging and photoaging of human skin in vivo. Skin Research and Technology, 27(3), 404-413. https://doi.org/10.1111/srt.12948
 Laing, S., Bielfeldt, S., Ehrenberg, C., & Wilhelm, K. P. (2020). A dermonutrient containing special collagen peptides improves skin structure and function: a randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind trial using confocal laser scanning microscopy on the cosmetic effects and tolerance of a drinkable collagen supplement. Journal of medicinal food, 23(2), 147-152. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2019.0197