Skin aging / wrinkling
Anti-Pollution Matrix > Damage > Clinical > Skin aging / wrinkling
The term "skin aging" describes the biological process of skin texture change associated with age. The causes of skin aging can be distinguished between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic skin aging is influenced by a person's genetic predisposition and hormonal status. Extrinsic skin aging is determined by external factors. These include various types of pollution (pollutions) including UV exposure, air pollution, climate (heat/cold), lifestyle (tobacco/alcohol consumption, diet, sleep quantity and quality), medication, psychological and physical stress [1,4].
Effects on the skin
The first visible signs of skin aging are wrinkles and folds. They occur when the skin becomes slack and loses elasticity and volume. In addition, there is a decrease in the production of hyaluronic acid, which can bind moisture. Free radicals (oxidative stress) induced by extrinsic factors activate enzymes (metalloproteinases) in the dermis and thus accelerate, among other things, the degradation of collagen both in the dermis and in the basement membrane [2,4].
Increased exposure to e.g.air pollution (fine dust particles) and sun exposure should be avoided, as they have a negative effect on the skin, can induce free radicals, which promotes the formation of wrinkles.
Wrinkle formation on the face or other parts of the body can be alleviated by the use of special cream formulations (sunscreens and film formers).
In general, the use of antioxidants is helpful to neutralize free radicals. Vitamin C or other cosmetic active ingredients, for example, support the body in the formation of new collagen or prevent its degradation [3,4].
Impact detection methods
Wrinkle parameters can be characterized and quantified using skin profilometry.
Multiphoton tomography is an optical non-invasive method to determine the ratio of collagen I to elastin (skin aging) in the skin.
The collagen content of the dermis can be estimated using RAMAN spectroscopy .
 M.A. Farage, K.W. Miller, P. Elsner, H.I. Maibach, Characteristics of the Aging Skin, Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle), 2 (2013) 5-10, DOI: 10.1089/wound.2011.0356.
 J. Wohlrab, K. Hilpert, A. Wohlrab, [Characteristics of aging skin], Hautarzt, 65 (2014) 911-920; quiz 921-912, DOI: 10.1007/s00105-014-3506-8.
 J. Wohlrab, K. Hilpert, L. Wolff, Epidermal aging and anti-aging strategies, Hautarzt, 67 (2016) 107-111, DOI: 10.1007/s00105-015-3734-6.
 Krutmann, Jean, Diepgen, Thomas, Billmann-Krutmann, Claudia (Hrsg.) (2008), Hautalterung: Grundlagen - Prävention – Therapie, 2. Auflage, Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg, SPIN: 12184750, ISBN 978-3-540-76820-3 Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-540-76821-0
 Kourbaj, G., Bielfeldt, S., Seise, M., & Wilhelm, K. P. (2021). Measurement of dermal water content by confocal RAMAN spectroscopy to investigate intrinsic aging and photoaging of human skin in vivo. Skin Research and Technology, 27(3), 404-413. https://doi.org/10.1111/srt.12948