Laser scanning microscopy (LSM)
Anti-Pollution Matrix > Methods > Method list
> Laser scanning microscopy (LSM)
Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) can be used when the particles and/ or agent of interest is fluorescent or labeled by a fluorescent agent.
The LSM technology can be applied ex vivo to a biopsy or to cryosections or in vivo to visualize the penetration of substances / active agents / particulate matter. In addition, penetration depths into hair follicles can be estimated. The lateral resolution of the method is 1 to 5 µm. Patzelt et al. , for example, showed that nanoparticles with a size of approx. 650 nm penetrate deepest into the hair follicle.
- follicular penetration, depth of penetration and distribution in the skin layers and decontamination of the skin and hair [2, 3]
- penetration of active ingredients/substances into the skin 
- investigation of the penetration of e.g. particles into the skin 
- decontamination tests (anti-pollution)
 A. Patzelt, H. Richter, F. Knorr, U. Schafer, C.M. Lehr, L. Dahne, W. Sterry, J. Lademann, Selective follicular targeting by modification of the particle sizes, J Control Release, 150 (2011) 45-48, DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2010.11.015
 J. Lademann, H. Richter, A. Patzelt, M.C. Meinke, I. Gross, S. Grether-Beck, J. Krutmann, L. Frazier, M.E. Darvin, Laser scanning microscopy for control of skin decontamination efficacy from airborne particulates using highly absorbent textile nanofiber material in combination with PEG-12 dimethicone, Skin Res Technol, 26 (2020) 558-563, DOI: 10.1111/srt.12830
 J. Lademann, F. Knorr, A. Patzelt, M.C. Meinke, H. Richter, J. Krutmann, E. Ruhl, O. Doucet, Laser Scanning Microscopic Investigations of the Decontamination of Soot Nanoparticles from the Skin, Skin Pharmacol Physiol, 31 (2018) 87-94, https://doi.org/10.1159/000485900
 S.B. Lohan, S. Saeidpour, A. Solik, S. Schanzer, H. Richter, P. Dong, M.E. Darvin, R. Bodmeier, A. Patzelt, G. Zoubari, M. Unbehauen, R. Haag, J. Lademann, C. Teutloff, R. Bittl, M.C. Meinke, Investigation of the cutaneous penetration behavior of dexamethasone loaded to nano-sized lipid particles by EPR spectroscopy, and confocal Raman and laser scanning microscopy, Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 116 (2017) 102-110, DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2016.12.018