Anti-Pollution Matrix EN – Methods – Method list – Raman spectroscopy

Anti-Pollution Matrix

Raman spectroscopy

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Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive measurement method that can be used ex vivo and in vivo if the chemical contrast between the substance under investigation (e.g. particle, carrier, active substance) and the skin is sufficient, i.e. no large band overlap occurs, and the concentration is high enough. The advantage of this method is that it works label-free and the investigated substances do not have to be chemically or physically altered.

Raman emission bands are highly specific for molecular structures; with this technique it is possible to characterize different classes of molecules in situ [1]. In addition, the study of antioxidants using resonance Raman spectroscopy [2] and the barrier function of the stratum corneum using Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is possible [3].

Using CRM the penetration of drugs, carriers, etc. into the skin can be followed and a penetration profile can be prepared. Raman emission bands are highly specific to molecular structures, making it possible to study different classes of molecules in situ.


  • penetration of active substances, particles, cosmetics into the skin
  • development of a penetration profile of active substances, particles, air pollutants, etc.
  • investigation of the water profile of the skin [4].


  • investigation of the distribution of active substances, particles, cosmetics in the skin (penetration profile)
  • proof of molecular differences between normal and pollution (e.g. smoke) exposed skin [5]
  • investigation of parameters specific to the barrier function of the Stratum Corneum [3]



General literature:
Skoog D.A., Leary J.J. (1996) Raman-Spektroskopie. In: Instrumentelle Analytik. Springer-Lehrbuch. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Specific contributions:
[1] Choe, C., et al. (2017). "Keratin-water-NMF interaction as a three layer model in the human stratum corneum using in vivo confocal Raman microscopy." Scientific reports 7(1): 15900,
[2] Darvin, M. E., et al. (2013). "Optical methods for noninvasive determination of carotenoids in human and animal skin." Journal of Biomedical Optics 18(6): 061230-061230,
[3] Choe, C., et al. (2020). "Stratum corneum occlusion induces water transformation towards lower bonding state: a molecular level in vivo study by confocal Raman microspectroscopy." International journal of cosmetic science 42(5): 482-493,
[4] C. Choe, J. Schleusener, S. Choe, J. Lademann, M.E. Darvin, A modification for the calculation of water depth profiles in oil-treated skin by in vivo confocal Raman microscopy, J Biophotonics, 13 (2020),
[5] Schleusener, J., et al. (2015). "In vivo study for the discrimination of cancerous and normal skin using fibre probe-based Raman spectroscopy." Experimental Dermatology 24(10): 767-772, DOI: 10.1111/exd.12768
[6] Caspers, P. J., Nico, C., Bakker Schut, T. C., de Sterke, J., Pudney, P. D., Curto, P. R., ... & Puppels, G. J. (2019). Method to quantify the in vivo skin penetration of topically applied materials based on confocal Raman spectroscopy. Translational Biophotonics, 1(1-2), e201900004,